Date: Wed, 25 Mar 1998 14:19:50 +0100 Sender: email@example.com Subject: Re: widow, widower, de facto... > >1. widow JANDA > >2. widower DUDA > >3. divorcee CERAI > >4. separated PISAH RANJANG > >5. de facto relationship. KUMPUL KEBOI fully agree with J*P*'s response, but like to call attention to some nuances in usage.
janda - some dictionaries/conversation-books also give this as translation for "widower", but the actual meaning is "widow" (female person whose husband has died). I have however occasionally heard janda laki-laki for "widower". duda - is the standard word for widower, but can also mean male divorcee. I have also once or twice heard it used jokingly in the meaning of "elderly unmarried man" (male counterpart to "old maid"). The female correspondent to dadu (in all its meanings) is RANDA "widow, female divorcee" (also randa tua "old maid"). Neither duda nor randa is as widely used as janda, and there could be a not unsubstantial circle of native speakers who are perhaps unfamiliar with these words or their meanings. There is also the word balu, meaning "widow, widower (person of either gender, whose spouse has died)", but seems not to be used or understood in all regions of the country. cerai - literally means "divorce, be divorced", so under circumstances or in certain contexts one might have to become explicit, e.g. with something like orang yang sudah cerai. Sometimes, bekas suami / bekas isteri would also do. pisah ranjang - literally "separated with reference to the bed (separated in that they don't share a bed)" is perhaps a calque from Dutch, in which the formula gescheden van bet en tafel "separated from bed and table" is a legal term, that being a status (not sharing same bed and same dining table = living in different households) which must have lasted for a certain period (I think one year) before one can be legally divorced by mutual consent. I don't know whether pisah ranjang also has some legal connotation. Alternatively, berpisah or pisah would also express the status of being separated. kumpul kebo - Has the "baku" variant kumpul kerbau, but the version with kebo, the Javanese (and Balinese) cognate of kerbau, prevails in the spoken language so far as I know.